To date, 559 cosmonauts and astronauts have made orbital space flights.
(Three more Americans made suborbital space flights). Among 557
astronauts - 63 women
Citizens of 39 states (3 of them USSR, GDR and Czechoslovakia are no longer
exist) made orbital space flights.
Cumulative time in space.
Until June 28, 2015, the russian cosmonaut Sergey Krikalev
was a record holder in the total duration of stay in space. He committed six
space flights, the total flight time was 19281 hours 39 minutes, or 803 days
9 hours 39 minutes or (approximately) 2 years 2.3 months. Sergey Krikalev was a member of two
long-term crews at the Mir station, two long-term ISS crews
( ISS-1 and ISS-11 ), as well as
made two flights on the American shuttles. June 28, 2015 Krikalev's record
surpassed the Russian cosmonaut Gennady Padalka .
In total, Padalka made five space flights with the cumulative duration
amounted to 21083 hours 32 mituts (878 days 11 h 32 m).
On the second place is Yuri Malenchenko (827 d 9 h 24 m 22 s, 19857 h 24 m 22 s).
The russian cosmonauts also have the third, fourth, fifth and sixth total space time.
Sergey Krikalev (802 d 15 h 8 m 11 s, 19263 h 8 m 11 s),
Alexander Kaleri (769 d 6 h 35 m 1 s, 18462 h 35 m 1 s),
Sergey Avdeev (747 d 14 h 14 m 1 s, 17942 h 14 m 1 s) and
Valery Polyakov (678 d. 16 h 33 m 18 s, 16288 h 33 m 18 s).
List of all cosmonauts and cosmonauts by cumulative time in space.
List of russian cosmonauts by cumulative time in space.
Cumulative time in space of astronauts excluding the USA and Russia.
Until December 2018, the largest total time of space flights among astronauts of third countries (excluding the United States and Russia) had
German astronaut Thomas Reiter . He made 2 space flights,
his total time in space is 8416 hours 28 minutes or 350 days 16 hours 28 minutes. In December 2018, Reiter’s time exceeded another
German cosmonaut Alexander Gerst - his time is 362 d 1 h 50 m 7 s (8689 h 50 m 7 s).
Full list of non american and non russian astronauts by cumulative time in space.
The age of astronauts.
At the oldest age, the last (second) flight made
John Glenn October 29, 1998 in the shuttle
Discovery STS-95 at the age of 77 years 3 months 11 days.
Storey Musgrave made his sixth space flight
November 19, 1996 in the shuttle Columbia STS-80 at the age of
61 year 3 months.
The youngest female astronaut remains
Valentina Tereshkova June 16, 1963
in the Vostok-6 at the age of 26
3 months 10 days. In the oldest age made a space flight
Barbara Morgan August 8, 2007 in the shuttle
Endeavour STS-118 at the age of 55 years 8 months
Lists of astronauts by age:
The first space flight at the age of less than 30 years was made by 12 cosmonauts.
The first space flight at the age of more than 55 years was made by 6 astronauts.
How many astronauts made the first space flights at different ages:
| || 12 astronauts (2%) || <30 years
| 30 years < || 60 astronauts (11%) || <35 years
| 35 years < || 221 astronauts (40%) || <40 years
| 40 years < || 169 astronauts (30%) || <45 years
| 45 years < || 72 astronauts (13%) || <50 years
| 50 years < || 17 astronauts (3%) || <55 years
| 55 years < || 6 astronauts (1%) ||
Increasing the duration of space flight.
Yuri Gagarin made the first space flight on April 12, 1961 on a spacecraft Vostok
lasting 1 hour 48 minutes. The first daily flight was made by a Soviet cosmonaut German Titov on a spacecraft
Vostok-2August 6-7, 1961. The first space flight lasting more than a week was made by American astronauts
Charles Conrad and Gordon Cooper on the spacecraft Gemini 5
from 21 to 29 August 1965. Second crew of the US space station Skylab
Alan Bean, Owen Garriott and Jack Lousma
spent in space for almost two months from July 28 to September 25, 1973. Soviet cosmonauts Vladimir Kovalenok and
Alexander Ivanchenkov spent more than 100 days in space at Salyut 6 from June 15 to November 2, 1978.
Soviet cosmonauts Anatoly Berezovoy and Valentin Lebedev spent in space
at station Salyut 7 from May 13 to December 10, 1982, more than 200 days. Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Romanenko spent in space
at Mir station from February 5 to December 29, 1987 more than 300 days. The first annual space flight was made by cosmonauts Vladimir Titov
and Musa Manarov at Mir station from December 21, 1987 to December 21, 1988. The longest space flight made cosmonaut
Valery Polyakov at Mir station from January 8, 1994 to March 22, 1995. Polyakova’s flight lasted 437 days 17 hours 58 minutes.
October 12, 2009 in space on the ship Soyuz TMA-13 ” launched another expedition
ISS-18 . The commander of the ISS-18 is an American astronaut Michael Fincke.
Michael Fincke flew the second time in space on the Russian ship Soyuz. He became the first American astronaut to fly twice
in space on the Soyuz ships. After two flights aboard the Soyuz, Michael Fink made the third flight on the shuttle
Endeavour STS-134 .
After this flight, Fink became the champion in terms of the total duration of space flights from American astronauts.
He made the first space flight on a Soyuz TMA-4 spacecraft.
American programmer and entrepreneur Charles Simonyi from March 26 to April 8, 2009 on
the ship Soyuz TMA-14 made a second space flight.
Simonyi became the first astronaut to commit
two space flights at their own expense. The first flight he made in April 2007 on a ship
Soyuz TMA-10 ,
he paid 20 million dollars. For the second, on the ship Soyuz TMA-14 - 35 million dollars.
Total time in space of American astronauts.
The largest total time in a space among American astronauts until April 16
Michael Foale . He made 6 space missions,
his total time in space was 8976 hours 19 minutes or 373 days 23 hours 19 minutes.
April 16, 2008, Michael Foale's record surpassed
Peggy Whitson, who participated in two long-term
Expeditions ISS-5 and ISS-16.
Peggy Whitson’s total time in space was 9,041 hours 22 minutes.
(376 days 17 h 22 m). May 27, 2011 Whitson improved time of
Michael Fincke . After the third spaceflight on the shuttle
Endeavour STS-134 Fincke's total time was 9159 hours 10 minutes (381 days 15 hours 10 minutes).
October 15, 2015, Fincke's time surpassed Scott Kelly.
After almost a year's flight, Scott Kelly returned on the earth on March 2, 2016. After four
Kelly's flight his time was 520 days 10 hours 34 minutes. August 24, 2016 Kelly record
surpassed Jeffrey Williams . Williams returned on the earth
On September 7, 2016, his total time in space was 534 days 2 h 49 m. After the third
flight from November 17, 2016 to September 3, 2017 Peggy Whitson regained the American record: 665 d 22 h 22 m 58 s
(15982 h 22 m 58 s), this is the eighth place among all astronauts.
Full list of american astronauts by cumulative time in space.
How many times astronauts fly.
American astronaut Gordon Cooper August 21, 1965
launched into space in Gemini 5. It was
the second space flight of Cooper, the first he made on May 15, 1963 in
Fight 7. Gordon Cooper became the first astronaut twice
flying into space. Astronaut Walter Schirra first
flew into space three times: first flight - October 3, 1962 in
Sigma 7, the second - December 15, 1965 in
Gemini 6A, third October 11, 1968 in
Astronaut James Lovell
first flew four times into space: the first flight - December 4, 1965 in
Gemini 7, the second - November 11, 1966 in
Gemini 12, the third - December 21, 1968 in
Apollo 8, fourth - April 11, 1970 in
Apollo 13. The first astronaut to complete the fifth and sixth
space flights, became John Young: first
flight - March 23, 1965 in Gemini 3,
the second - July 18, 1966 in Gemini 10,
the third - May 18, 1969 in Apollo 10,
Fourth - April 16, 1972 in Apollo 16,
the fifth - April 12, 1981 in the shuttle Columbia STS-1,
Sixth - November 28, 1983 in the shuttle Columbia STS-9.
Among Soviet cosmonauts, the first to launch twice into space was
Vladimir Komarov. Second Flight (April 23, 1967)
Komarov was simultaneously the first manned flight of the spacecraft
Soyuz. By landing Komarov was killed. First
three space flights cosmonauts performed simultaneously
Vladimir Shatalov and
Alexey Yeliseyev, who started in the crew
of the Soyuz 10 on April 23, 1971.
Vladimir Dzhanibekov the first of the Soviet cosmonauts
made the fourth (July 17, 1984 in Soyuz T-12) and the fifth space flight
(June 6, 1985 in Soyuz T-13).
The first six space flights among Soviet cosmonauts made
Sergey Krikalev - the sixth flight on April 15, 2005 in
Soyuz TMA-6. Currently only
two astronauts made seven space flights. First did it
Jerry Ross April 8, 2002 in the shuttle
Atlantis STS-110. The second is
Franklin Chang-Diaz June 5, 2002 on the shuttle
A complete list of astronauts and astronauts committed
Among the women of the first two space flights made the Soviet cosmonaut
Svetlana Savitskaya. The second became American
astronaut Sally Raid. Three and more space
flights among women made only American astronauts.
The first three, four and five flights made Shannon Lucid.
Currently, six women flew into space five times. Full list of women astronauts committed
The longest flights.
The Russian cosmonaut Valery Polyakov made the longest space flight from January 8, 1994 to March 22, 1995.
Polyakov went into space in Soyuz TM-18 spent more than a year on Mir station and returned on the earth in
Soyuz TM-20. Its flight duration: 437 days 17 hours 59 minutes (10505 hours 59 minutes). Three more astronauts
made space flights lasting more than one year: Sergey Avdeyev (379 d 14 h 51 m),
Vladimir Titov and Musa Manarov (365 d 22 h 39 m ). Four more astronauts made space flights
lasting more than 300 days: Mikhail Kornienko, Scott Kelly (340 d 8 h 42),
Yuri Romanenko (326 d 11 h 38 m) and Sergey Krikalev (311 d 20 h 1 m).
Ten cosmonauts made space missions lasting more than 200 days.
The longest space flight among American astronauts made Scott Kelly (340 d 8 h 42 m 30 s, 8168 h 42 m 30 s).
The longest space flight among astronauts not from Russia and not from the USA was made by an astronaut from Italy
Samantha Cristoforetti (199 d 16 h 42 m 46 s, 4792 h 42 m 46 s).
The longest space flight among women - astronauts was made by the US astronaut Peggy Whitson (289 d 5 h 1 m 30 s, 6941 h 1 m 30 s).
The list of cosmonauts and astronauts by the duration of the space flight: