To date, 597 cosmonauts and astronauts have made orbital space flights.
(55 more made suborbital space flights). Among 597
astronauts - 71 women .
Citizens of 40 states (3 of them USSR, GDR and Czechoslovakia are no longer
exist) made orbital space flights.
Growth in the number of astronauts over the years.
Cumulative time in space of astronauts excluding the USA and Russia.
Until December 2018, the largest total time of space flights among astronauts of third countries (excluding the United States and Russia) had
German astronaut Thomas Reiter. He made 2 space flights,
his total time in space is 8416 hours 28 minutes or 350 days 16 hours 28 minutes.
In December 2018, Reiter’s time exceeded another German cosmonaut
Alexander Gerst - his time
is 362 d 1 h 50 m 7 s (8689 h 50 m 7 s).
The Italian astronaut Luca Parmitano
surpassed Gerst's time.
After the completion of the second flight on February 6, 2020, the total time of Parmitano
was 366 d 23 h 1 m 15 s (8807 h 1 m 15 s). French astronaut
surpassed the time of Parmitano.
After the completion of the second flight on November 9, 2021, the total time of Pesquet
was 396 d 11 h 34 m 25 s (9515 h 34 m 25 s).
Japanese astronaut Koichi Wakata surpassed Pesquet's time. After the completion of the fifth flight
on March 12, 2023 total time for Wakata was 504 d 18 h 33 m 4 s (12114 h 33 m 4 s).
Full list of non american and non russian astronauts by cumulative time in space.
The age of astronauts.
The youngest astronaut for 62 years remains the second
Soviet cosmonaut German Titov,
who first made a daily flight on August 6, 1961 at the age of
25 years 10 months 25 days.
In the first ten of the youngest cosmonauts 5 is the Soviet and 5 astronauts from the third
countries. In the first twenty - 10 Soviet, 9 astronauts from third countries and
American amateur astronaut Hayley Arceno.
On the 21st place is the first American woman astronaut
Sally Ride, which made its first flight on June 18, 1983, at
Shuttle crew Challenger STS-7
at the age of 32 years 23 days.
At the very old age, the first flight was made by American and Israeli space tourists:
Larry Connor at the age of 72 y 3 m 1 d,
Eytan Stibbe at the age of 64 y 2 m 27 d,
Denis Tito April 28, 2001 in
Soyuz TM-32 at the age of 60 years 8 months
20 days and Gregory Olsen October 1, 2005 in
Soyuz TMA-7 at the age of 60 years 5 months 11 days.
The first space flight at the age of less than 30 years was made by 13 cosmonauts.
The first space flight at the age of more than 55 years was made by 6 astronauts.
How many astronauts made the first space flights at different ages:
13 astronauts (2,2%) ≤ 30 years
30 years < 62 astronauts (10,4%) ≤ 35 years
35 years < 231 astronauts (38,9%) ≤ 40 years
40 years < 179 astronauts (30,1%) ≤ 45 years
45 years < 80 astronauts (13,5%) ≤ 50 years
50 years < 20 astronauts (3,4%) ≤ 55 years
55 years < 9 astronauts (1,5%)
Increasing the duration of space flight.
Yuri Gagarin made the first space flight on April 12, 1961 on a spacecraft Vostok
lasting 1 hour 48 minutes. The first daily flight was made by a Soviet cosmonaut German Titov on a spacecraft
Vostok-2August 6-7, 1961. The first space flight lasting more than a week was made by American astronauts
Charles Conrad and Gordon Cooper on the spacecraft Gemini 5
from 21 to 29 August 1965. Second crew of the US space station SkylabAlan Bean, Owen Garriott and Jack Lousma
spent in space for almost two months from July 28 to September 25, 1973. Soviet cosmonauts Vladimir Kovalenok and
Alexander Ivanchenkov spent more than 100 days in space at Salyut 6 from June 15 to November 2, 1978.
Soviet cosmonauts Anatoly Berezovoy and Valentin Lebedev spent in space
at station Salyut 7 from May 13 to December 10, 1982, more than 200 days. Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Romanenko spent in space
at Mir station from February 5 to December 29, 1987 more than 300 days. The first annual space flight was made by cosmonauts Vladimir Titov
and Musa Manarov at Mir station from December 21, 1987 to December 21, 1988. The longest space flight made cosmonaut
Valery Polyakov at Mir station from January 8, 1994 to March 22, 1995. Polyakova’s flight lasted 437 days 17 hours 58 minutes.
October 12, 2009 in space on the ship Soyuz TMA-13 ” launched another expedition
ISS-18 . The commander of the ISS-18 is an American astronaut Michael Fincke.
Michael Fincke flew the second time in space on the Russian ship Soyuz. He became the first American astronaut to fly twice
in space on the Soyuz ships. After two flights aboard the Soyuz, Michael Fink made the third flight on the shuttle
Endeavour STS-134 .
After this flight, Fink became the champion in terms of the total duration of space flights from American astronauts.
He made the first space flight on a Soyuz TMA-4 spacecraft.
American programmer and entrepreneur Charles Simonyi from March 26 to April 8, 2009 on
the ship Soyuz TMA-14 made a second space flight.
Simonyi became the first astronaut to commit
two space flights at their own expense. The first flight he made in April 2007 on a ship
Soyuz TMA-10 ,
he paid 20 million dollars. For the second, on the ship Soyuz TMA-14 - 35 million dollars.
Total time in space of American astronauts.
The largest total time in a space among American astronauts until April 16
Michael Foale . He made 6 space missions,
his total time in space was 8976 hours 19 minutes or 373 days 23 hours 19 minutes.
April 16, 2008, Michael Foale's record surpassed
Peggy Whitson, who participated in two long-term
Expeditions ISS-5 and ISS-16.
Peggy Whitson’s total time in space was 9,041 hours 22 minutes.
(376 days 17 h 22 m). May 27, 2011 Whitson improved time of
Michael Fincke . After the third spaceflight on the shuttle
Endeavour STS-134 Fincke's total time was 9159 hours 10 minutes (381 days 15 hours 10 minutes).
October 15, 2015, Fincke's time surpassed Scott Kelly.
After almost a year's flight, Scott Kelly returned on the earth on March 2, 2016. After four
Kelly's flight his time was 520 days 10 hours 34 minutes. August 24, 2016 Kelly record
surpassed Jeffrey Williams . Williams returned on the earth
On September 7, 2016, his total time in space was 534 days 2 h 49 m. After the third
flight from November 17, 2016 to September 3, 2017 Peggy Whitson regained the American record: 665 d 22 h 22 m 58 s
(15982 h 22 m 58 s), this is the tenth place among all astronauts.
Full list of american astronauts by cumulative time in space.
How many times astronauts fly.
American astronaut Gordon Cooper August 21, 1965
launched into space in Gemini 5. It was
the second space flight of Cooper, the first he made on May 15, 1963 in
Fight 7. Gordon Cooper became the first astronaut twice
flying into space. Astronaut Walter Schirra first
flew into space three times: first flight - October 3, 1962 in
Sigma 7, the second - December 15, 1965 in
Gemini 6A, third October 11, 1968 in
Among Soviet cosmonauts, the first to launch twice into space was
Vladimir Komarov. Second Flight (April 23, 1967)
Komarov was simultaneously the first manned flight of the spacecraft
Soyuz. By landing Komarov was killed. First
three space flights cosmonauts performed simultaneously
Vladimir Shatalov and
Alexey Yeliseyev, who started in the crew
of the Soyuz 10 on April 23, 1971.
Vladimir Dzhanibekov the first of the Soviet cosmonauts
made the fourth (July 17, 1984 in Soyuz T-12) and the fifth space flight
(June 6, 1985 in Soyuz T-13).
The first six space flights among Soviet cosmonauts made
Among the women of the first two space flights made the Soviet cosmonaut
Svetlana Savitskaya. The second became American
astronaut Sally Raid. Three and more space
flights among women made only American astronauts.
The first three, four and five flights made Shannon Lucid.
Currently, six women flew into space five times. Full list of women astronauts committed
The Russian cosmonaut Valery Polyakov made the longest space flight from January 8, 1994 to March 22, 1995.
Polyakov went into space in Soyuz TM-18 spent more than a year on Mir station and returned on the earth in
Soyuz TM-20. Its flight duration: 437 days 17 hours 59 minutes (10505 hours 59 minutes). Three more astronauts
made space flights lasting more than one year: Sergey Avdeyev (379 d 14 h 51 m),
Vladimir Titov and Musa Manarov (365 d 22 h 39 m ).
Seven more astronauts made space flights lasting more than 300 days.
The longest space flight among American astronauts made Mark Vande Hei (355 d 3 h 45 m 20 s, 8523 h 45 m 20 s).
The longest space flight among astronauts not from Russia and not from the USA was made by an astronaut from Canada
David Saint-Jacques (203 d 15 h 17 m, 4887 h 17 m).
The longest space flight among women - astronauts was made by the US astronaut
Christina Koch (328 d 13 h 58 m, 7885 h 58 m).
The list of cosmonauts and astronauts by the duration of the space flight:
Soviet cosmonaut Musa Manarov made his first flight from December 21, 1987 to December 21, 1988, together with
Vladimir Titov. They started on the Soyuz TM-4
and landed on the Soyuz TM-6 and spent a year at the Mir
station. For Vladimir Titov, this was the second space flight. This flight of Musa Manarov is still the longest flight for
beginners. The second longest rookie space flight was by russian cosmonaut
Pyotr Dubrov - 355 d 3 h 45 m 20 s (8523 h 45 m 20 s).
The third longest space flight for beginners was made by the american astronaut
Christina Koch - 328 days 13 hours 58 minutes (7885 hours 58 minutes).
The longest female novice spaceflight was by Christina Koch, an American astronaut
328 days 13 hours 58 minutes (7885 hours 58 minutes). Her flight is also the longest
rookie flight of any American astronaut.
The longest novice space flight among non-Russian and non-US astronauts was made by an astronaut from
Canada David Saint-Jacques: 203 days 15 hours 17 minutes (4887 hours 17 minutes).
Ye Guangfu made the longest rookie space flight among Chinese
astronauts: 182 d 9 h 33 m (4377 h 33 m).
List of cosmonauts and astronauts by duration of the first space flight: