Menschen im Weltraum. Länder. Humans in space. Countries. Человек в космосе. Страны.
To this day, citizens of 39 countries (three of these countries, the USSR, Czechoslovakia and the GDR no longer exist): USSR, USA, Czechoslovakia, Poland, GDR, Bulgaria, Hungary, Vietnam, Cuba, Mongolia, Romania, France, Germany, India, Canada, Saudi Arabia, the Netherlands, Mexico, Syria, Afghanistan, Japan, Great Britain, Kazakhstan, Austria, Russia, Belgium, Switzerland, Italy, Ukraine, Spain, Slovakia, South Africa, Israel, China, Brazil, Sweden, Malaysia, South Korea, Denmark.
The list of cosmonauts of all countries excluding the USSR/Russia and the USA.

USSR Russia.

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The first manned space flight was performed in the Soviet Union on April 12, 1961. Yuri Gagarin circled the erth on the spaceship Vostok. Since then, first in the USSR, and then in Russia, cosmonauts constantly fly into space.

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Yuri Gagarin

The first six manned flights were made on the spaceships Vostok. Then two flights on multi-seater spaceships Voskhod. In 1963 Valentina Tereshkova became the first woman astronaut. In 1965, Alexey Leonov made the world's first spacewalk. Since 1968 astronauts fly on the Soyuz spaceships. In the USSR, several manned space station were launched: Salyut-1, Salyut-3, Salyut-4, Salyut-5, Salyut-6, Salyut-7, Mir. Russia participates in the project of the International Space Station. A total of 120 cosmonauts of the USSR and Russia flew in space, among them 4 women. List of cosmonauts of the USSR/Russia.

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China is the third country that independently manages manned space flights. By 2018, six manned space flights were carried out in China. Eleven cosmonauts flew into space, among them two women. One flew three times and one two times. Two cosmonauts participated in spacewalk.
China is actively developing a three-stage manned space program. The first stage is to send the astronaut into space and safely return him to the earth. This stage was performed in 2003, when Yang Liwei made the first manned flight on spacecraft Shenzhou-5.

Yang Liwei
Yang Liwei

The second stage of the manned space program is being carried out, the purpose of which - spacewalk and docking in orbit, and launching a space laboratory that may be temporarily habitable. In September 2016, China’s Tiangong-2 space laboratory was launched into orbit. It is planned that this laboratory will be periodically habitable. Two astronauts can live in the Tiangong-2 laboratory for 30 days. Manned and cargo spacecraft can dock to the laboratory.

Liu Yang
Liu Yang

The third stage is the launch into orbit of a permanent manned space station. The space station of China will consist of three parts, weighing more than 60 tons, and be able to dock two manned ships and one cargo ship. Six astronauts can stay at the station simultaneously. The station must remain in orbit for ten years. Astronauts can remain in orbit for more than one year.
Facts of China's Space Manned Program:
  • «Shenzhou-1» Launch: 22:30 19 ноября 1999. Landing: 19:41 Nov 20, 1999. The main purpose of the flight is the reliability test launcher and verification of key technologies associated with the separation of the ship and its separation into modules, test of heat protection, control and landing.
  • «Shenzhou-2» Launch: 01:00 Jan 9, 2001. Landing: 11:22 Jan 16, 2001. «Shenzhou-2» was a first unmanned space ship
  • «Shenzhou-3» Launch: 14:00 Mar 25, 2002. Landing: 08:51 Apr 1, 2002. The second unmmanned flight.
  • «Shenzhou-4» Launch: 16:40 Dec 29, 2002. Landing: 11:16 Jan 5, 2003. The third unmanned flight.
  • «Shenzhou-5» Launch: 01:00 Oct 15, 2003. Landing: 22:23 Oct 15, 2003. The first manned flight. China becomes the third country to carry out a manned flight. The first Chinese cosmonaut became Yang Liwei.
  • «Shenzhou-6» Launch: 01:00 Oct 12, 2005. Landing: 20:32 Oct 16, 2005. The second manned space flight of China. Crew: Fei Junlong and Nie Haisheng.
  • «Shenzhou-7» Launch: 13:10 Sep 25, 2008. Landing: 09:38 Sep 28, 2008. The third manned space flight of China. Crew: Zhai Zhigang, Liu Boming и Jing Haipeng. Zhai Zhigang and Liu Boming implemented the first Chinese spacewalk.
  • Tiangong-1 station Launch: 13:16 Sep 29, 2011.
  • «Shenzhou-8» Launch: 21:58 Oct 31, 2011. Landing: 11:32 Nov 17, 2011. Unmanned flight. The first docking with the Tiangong-1 station.
  • «Shenzhou-9» Launch: 10:37 Jun 16, 2012. Landing: 02:02 ч Jun 29, 2012. Crew: Jing Haipeng, Liu Wang and Liu Yang. Docking with the Tiangong-1 station. Liu Yang is the first female cosmonaut of China.
  • «Shenzhou-10» Launch: 9:38 Jun 11, 2013. Landing: 00:07 Jun 26, 2013. Crew: Nie Haisheng, Zhang Xiaoguang и Wang Yaping. Docking with the Tiangong-1 station. Wang Yaping is the first female cosmonaut of China.
  • «Shenzhou-11» Launch: 23:30 Oct 16, 2016. Landing: 05:59 Nov 18, 2016. Crew: Jing Haipeng, Chen Dong. Docking with the Tiangong-2 station.
List of Chinese astronauts..

Mongolia.

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Judgerdemidiyin Gurragcha

Mongolia has the only astronaut who flew into space according to the program Intercosmos on the spaceship Soyuz-39.

France.

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Jean-Loup Chretien

France is actively involved in manned spaceflights. French astronauts flew as on the spaceships of the USSR/Russia and the United States. First French cosmonaut Jean-Loup Chretien went into space in the Soviet spaceship Soyuz T-6. Second - Patrick Baudry on the US Shuttle Discovery STS-51G. France, through the European Space Agency, participates in the project of the International Space Station. To date, ten French astronauts have flown into space, among them one woman Claudie Andre-Deshay. Two astronauts made three space flight. French astronauts participated in eighteen space missions, nine of them on Soviet (Russian) spaceships and nine on American shuttles.
List of french astronauts.

India.

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Rakesh Sharma

India has the only cosmonaut who flew into space according to the program Intercosmos on the spaceship Soyuz T-11.

Canada.

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Marc Garneau

The first Canadian astronauts flew on American shuttles. First astronaut of Canada Marc Garneau, who flew into space on space shuttle Challenger STS-41G in 1984. Canada participates in the project of the International Space Station. By now, in space has flown nine Canadian astronauts, among them two women.
List of Canadian Astronauts.

Netherlands.

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Вуббо Окелс

The Netherlands have two astronauts. The first was Wubbo Ockels who flew on the Space Shuttle Challenger STS-61G. The second cosmonaut of the Netherlands Andre Kuipers twice flew on the Russian Soyuz.

Syria.

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Muhammed Faris

Syria has the only astronaut who flew into space according to the program Intercosmos on the spaceship Soyuz TM-3.

Japan.

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Toyohiro Akiyama

The first Japanese astronaut is Toihiro Akiyama, who flew in space on the Russian spaceship Soyuz TM-11. The following Japanese astronauts flew on the American Space Shuttles, and then again on the Soyuz. Japan participates in the International Space Station project. By now Japan has eleven astronauts, among them two women.
List of astronauts of Japan.

Italy.

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Franco Malerba

All Italian astronauts fly on Russian or American spacecrafts. The first astronaut of Italy is Franco Malerba, who made his first space flight in July 1992 on the American Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-46. Umberto Guidoni became the first Italian astronaut who made two space flights. The longest space flight (199 days 16 hours 43 minutes) among Italian astronauts made the first Italian woman astronaut Samantha Cristoforetti. During the stay Paolo Nespoli on the ISS (from December 17, 2010 to May 23, 2011), on the station on the Space Shuttle Endeavour STS-134 also flew Roberto Vittori. From May 18 to May 23, 2011 on the ISS was the first time two Italian astronauts. The flight on the Endeavour was the third in Vittori's career, he became the first Italian astronaut to complete three space flights. Only seven Italian astronauts participated in 11 space missions: 6 of them on spaceships of Russia and 5 on the American space shuttles.
List of astronauts of Italy.

Israel.

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Ilan Ramon

Ilan Ramon is the only Israeli astronaut who flew in space on the Space Shuttle Colombia STS-107. Ilan Ramon died in the crash of Columbiaю

Sweden.

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Christer Fuglesang

Christer Fuglesang is the only astronaut in Sweden who has flown twice into space on the Space Shuttle Discovery. The first time in 2006 and the second time in 2009.

South Korea.

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Yi So-yeon

Yi So-yeon the first cosmonaut and at the same time the first woman cosmonaut from South Korea, which flew into space on the Soyuz TMA-12.

USA.

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The first two US space flights in 1961 were suborbital. John Glenn made first US orbital flight on February 20, 1962 on the spaceship Friendship 7.

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John Glenn

The first program of manned space flight in the US - Mercury was carried out from 1961 to 1963. According to the Mercury program, six manned flights were made, of which two suborbital. In 1965 and 1966 in the United States were launched ten two-seater Gemini spaceships.
At the same time, the Apollo program was developed in the United States, which ended with landing of American astronauts on the moon. There were eleven manned flights in total on the Apollo program, there are three of them with an exit onto the orbit of the moon and six with a landing on the moon. Only 12 American astronauts visited the moon.
In 1973 and 1974, Americans exploited Skylab space station. The station was visited by three long-term expeditions to each three astronauts.
At the same time, was launched a program of the reusable manned spacecraft Space Shuttle. The first flight of the shuttle was done in 1981. From 1981 to 2011, 130 shuttle flights were carried out. Two shuttles Challenger and Colombia crashed, killing 14 astronauts.
The United States participates in the International Space Station project. After closing the program of the Space Shuttle, American astronauts fly to the ISS in the Russian Soyuz.
A total of 340 US astronauts have been in space, among them - 47 women.
List of astronauts of USA.

Czechoslovakia.

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Vladimir Remek

Czechoslovakia has the only cosmonaut who flew into space according to the program Intercosmos on the spacecraft Soyuz-28.

Poland.

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Miroslav Hermaszewski

Poland has the only cosmonaut who flew into space according to the program Intercosmos on the spacecraft Soyuz-30.

Bulgaria.

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Georgy Ivanov

The first Bulgarian cosmonaut Georgy Ivanov went into space on April 10, 1979 on Soyuz-33. The spacecraft did not come out to the calculated orbit. The planned docking with the Salyut-6 station did not take place. In compensation for the unsuccessful flight of the first cosmonaut, Bulgaria received a second cosmonaut. Alexander Alexandrov flew into space in 1988. The flight of the second Bulgarian cosmonaut went quite well. Docked with Mir station and the flight program is fully implemented.
List of Bulgarian cosmonauts.

Hungary.

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Bertalan Farkash

Hungary has the only cosmonaut who flew into space according to the program Intercosmos on the spacecraft Soyuz-36.

Vietnam.

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Pham Tuan

Vietnam has the only cosmonaut who flew into space according to the program Intercosmos on the spacecraft Soyuz-37.

Cuba.

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Arnaldo Tamayo Mendez

Cuba has the only cosmonaut who flew into space according to the program Intercosmos on the spacecraft Soyuz-38.

Romania.

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Dumitru Prunariu

Romania has the only cosmonaut who flew into space according to the program Intercosmos on the spacecraft Soyuz-40.

Germany.

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Ulf Merbold

The first German cosmonaut was Sigmund Jaehn from the GDR, who flew into space on the Soviet spacecraft Soyuz in 1978. The first cosmonaut of West Germany became Ulf Merbold who flew into space on the Space Shuttle Columbia STS-9 in 1983. Later (in 1994) Merbold also flew on the Russian spaceshif Soyuz TM-20. Germany is actively involved in manned flights. German astronauts flew as on the spaceships of the USSR/Russia and the United States.
Germany, through the European Space Agency, participates in the project of the International Space Station. By now into space flew eleven German astronauts. Ulf Merbold made three space flights. German cosmonauts participated in German cosmonauts participated in thirteen space flights, seven of them on Soviet (Russian) ships and six on American shuttles.
List of astronauts of Germany

Saudi Arabia.

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Salman Al-Saud

Saudi Arabia has the only cosmonaut who flew into space on Space Shuttle Discovery STS-51G.

Mexico.

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Rodolfo Neri Vela

Mexico has the only cosmonaut who flew into space on Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-61B.

Afghanistan.

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Abdul Mohmand

Afghanistan has the only cosmonaut who flew into space on the spacecraft Soyuz TM-6.

Great Britain.

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Helen Sharman

The Great Britain has two cosmonauts. The first was Helen Sharman who did flight aboard the Russian spacecraft Soyuz TM-12 . The second cosmonaut of the Great Britain was Timothy Peak, who also flew on the Russian spacecraft Soyuz TMA-19M and spent a half of year in the crew of the ISS.

Austria.

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Franz Viehboeck

Austria has the only cosmonaut who flew into space on the spacecraft Soyuz TM-13.

Switzerland.

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Claude Nicollier

Claude Nicollier is the only astronaut of the Switzerland, which, however, flew four times into space on the American Space shuttles. He made his first flight in 1992 on the Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-46.

Ukraine.

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Leonid Kadenyuk

Ukraine has the only astronaut who flew into space on the Space Shuttle Columbia STS-87.

South Africa.

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Mark Shuttleworth

Mark Shuttleworth is the only astronaut and at the same time a space tourist from South Africa who flew into space on Soyuz TM-34.