To this day, citizens of 39 countries (three of these countries, the USSR,
Czechoslovakia and the GDR no longer exist):
USSR, USA, Czechoslovakia, Poland, GDR, Bulgaria, Hungary, Vietnam, Cuba, Mongolia, Romania,
France, Germany, India, Canada, Saudi Arabia, the Netherlands, Mexico, Syria, Afghanistan,
Japan, Great Britain, Kazakhstan, Austria, Russia, Belgium, Switzerland, Italy, Ukraine,
Spain, Slovakia, South Africa, Israel, China, Brazil, Sweden, Malaysia,
South Korea, Denmark.
The list of cosmonauts of all countries excluding the USSR/Russia and the USA.
The first manned space flight was performed in the Soviet Union on April 12, 1961.
Yuri Gagarin circled the erth on the spaceship Vostok. Since then, first in the USSR, and then
in Russia, cosmonauts constantly fly into space.
The first six manned flights were
made on the spaceships Vostok. Then two flights on multi-seater spaceships
Voskhod. In 1963 Valentina Tereshkova became the first woman astronaut.
In 1965, Alexey Leonov made the world's first spacewalk. Since 1968
astronauts fly on the Soyuz spaceships. In the USSR, several manned space station were
launched: Salyut-1, Salyut-3, Salyut-4, Salyut-5, Salyut-6, Salyut-7, Mir.
Russia participates in the project of the International Space Station.
A total of 120 cosmonauts of the USSR and Russia flew in space, among them 4 women.
List of cosmonauts of the USSR/Russia.
China is the third country that independently manages manned space flights.
By 2018, six manned space flights were carried out in China.
Eleven cosmonauts flew into space, among them two women. One flew three times and one two times.
Two cosmonauts participated in spacewalk.
China is actively developing a three-stage manned space program.
The first stage is to send the astronaut into space and safely return him to the earth. This stage
was performed in 2003, when Yang Liwei made the first manned flight on
The second stage of the manned space program is being carried out, the purpose of which
- spacewalk and docking in orbit, and launching a space laboratory that may be temporarily habitable.
In September 2016, China’s Tiangong-2 space laboratory was launched into orbit.
It is planned that this laboratory will be periodically habitable.
Two astronauts can live in the Tiangong-2 laboratory for 30 days.
Manned and cargo spacecraft can dock to the laboratory.
The third stage is the launch into orbit of a permanent manned space station.
The space station of China will consist of three parts, weighing more than 60 tons,
and be able to dock two manned ships and one cargo ship.
Six astronauts can stay at the station simultaneously. The station must remain in orbit for ten years.
Astronauts can remain in orbit for more than one year.
Facts of China's Space Manned Program:
List of Chinese astronauts..
- «Shenzhou-1» Launch: 22:30 19 ноября 1999. Landing: 19:41 Nov 20, 1999. The main purpose of the flight is the reliability test
launcher and verification of key technologies associated with the separation of the ship and its separation into modules,
test of heat protection, control and landing.
- «Shenzhou-2» Launch: 01:00 Jan 9, 2001. Landing: 11:22 Jan 16, 2001. «Shenzhou-2» was a first unmanned space ship
- «Shenzhou-3» Launch: 14:00 Mar 25, 2002. Landing: 08:51 Apr 1, 2002. The second unmmanned flight.
- «Shenzhou-4» Launch: 16:40 Dec 29, 2002. Landing: 11:16 Jan 5, 2003. The third unmanned flight.
- «Shenzhou-5» Launch: 01:00 Oct 15, 2003. Landing: 22:23 Oct 15, 2003.
The first manned flight. China becomes the third country to carry out a manned flight. The first Chinese cosmonaut
became Yang Liwei.
- «Shenzhou-6» Launch: 01:00 Oct 12, 2005. Landing: 20:32 Oct 16, 2005.
The second manned space flight of China. Crew: Fei Junlong and
- «Shenzhou-7» Launch: 13:10 Sep 25, 2008. Landing: 09:38 Sep 28, 2008.
The third manned space flight of China. Crew: Zhai Zhigang,
Liu Boming и Jing Haipeng.
Zhai Zhigang and Liu Boming implemented the first Chinese spacewalk.
- Tiangong-1 station Launch: 13:16 Sep 29, 2011.
- «Shenzhou-8» Launch: 21:58 Oct 31, 2011. Landing: 11:32 Nov 17, 2011. Unmanned flight. The first
docking with the Tiangong-1 station.
- «Shenzhou-9» Launch: 10:37 Jun 16, 2012. Landing: 02:02 ч Jun 29, 2012.
Crew: Jing Haipeng,
Liu Wang and Liu Yang.
Docking with the Tiangong-1 station. Liu Yang is the first female cosmonaut of China.
Launch: 9:38 Jun 11, 2013. Landing: 00:07 Jun 26, 2013. Crew:
Nie Haisheng, Zhang Xiaoguang
и Wang Yaping. Docking with the Tiangong-1 station.
Wang Yaping is the first female cosmonaut of China.
- «Shenzhou-11» Launch: 23:30 Oct 16, 2016. Landing: 05:59 Nov 18, 2016.
Crew: Jing Haipeng,
Chen Dong. Docking with the Tiangong-2 station.
Mongolia has the only astronaut who flew into space according to the program
Intercosmos on the spaceship Soyuz-39.
France is actively involved in manned spaceflights. French astronauts flew
as on the spaceships of the USSR/Russia and the United States. First French cosmonaut
Jean-Loup Chretien went into space in the Soviet
spaceship Soyuz T-6. Second -
Patrick Baudry on the
US Shuttle Discovery STS-51G. France,
through the European Space Agency, participates in the project of the International Space Station.
To date, ten French astronauts have flown into space, among them one woman
Claudie Andre-Deshay. Two astronauts made three
space flight. French astronauts participated in eighteen space missions,
nine of them on Soviet (Russian) spaceships and nine on American shuttles.
List of french astronauts.
India has the only cosmonaut who flew into space according to the program
Intercosmos on the spaceship Soyuz T-11.
The first Canadian astronauts flew on American shuttles. First astronaut of
Canada Marc Garneau, who flew into space on space
shuttle Challenger STS-41G in 1984. Canada
participates in the project of the International Space Station. By now, in space has flown
nine Canadian astronauts, among them two women.
List of Canadian Astronauts.
The Netherlands have two astronauts. The first was
Wubbo Ockels who flew on the Space Shuttle
The second cosmonaut of the Netherlands Andre Kuipers twice
flew on the Russian Soyuz.
Syria has the only astronaut who flew into space according to the program
Intercosmos on the spaceship Soyuz TM-3.
The first Japanese astronaut is Toihiro Akiyama,
who flew in space on the Russian spaceship Soyuz TM-11.
The following Japanese astronauts flew on the American Space Shuttles, and then again on the Soyuz.
Japan participates in the International Space Station project. By now Japan has eleven astronauts,
among them two women.
List of astronauts of Japan.
Kazakhstan has three astronauts who all flew aboard the Soyuz spaceships.
The first cosmonaut in Kazakhstan was Toktar Aubakirov,
who flew on a Soyuz TM-13.
List of cosmonauts of Kazakhstan.
Belgium has two astronauts. The first Belgian astronaut is
Dirk Frimout, who made a space flight in
1992 on the Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-45. Second astronaut of
Belgium Frank De Winne flew twice on the Soyuz spacescrafts.
List of astronauts of Belgium.
All Italian astronauts fly on Russian or American spacecrafts.
The first astronaut of Italy is Franco Malerba,
who made his first space flight in July 1992 on the American Space Shuttle
Umberto Guidoni became the first Italian astronaut
who made two space flights.
The longest space flight (199 days 16 hours 43 minutes) among Italian astronauts
made the first Italian woman astronaut
During the stay Paolo Nespoli on the ISS
(from December 17, 2010 to May 23, 2011), on the station on the Space Shuttle
Endeavour STS-134 also flew
Roberto Vittori. From May 18 to May 23, 2011 on
the ISS was the first time two Italian astronauts. The flight on the Endeavour was the third
in Vittori's career, he became the first Italian astronaut to complete three space flights.
Only seven Italian astronauts participated in 11 space missions: 6 of them on
spaceships of Russia and 5 on the American space shuttles.
List of astronauts of Italy.
Ivan Bella is the only cosmonaut in Slovakia who flew in space on
Ilan Ramon is the only Israeli astronaut who flew in space on the Space
Shuttle Colombia STS-107. Ilan Ramon died in the crash of Columbiaю
Christer Fuglesang is the only astronaut in Sweden who has flown twice into space
on the Space Shuttle Discovery. The first time in 2006 and the second time in 2009.
Yi So-yeon the first cosmonaut and at the same time the first woman cosmonaut from
South Korea, which flew into space on the Soyuz TMA-12.
The first two US space flights in 1961 were suborbital. John Glenn made first US orbital
flight on February 20, 1962 on the spaceship Friendship 7.
The first program of manned space flight in the US - Mercury was carried out
from 1961 to 1963. According to the Mercury program, six manned flights were made, of which
two suborbital. In 1965 and 1966 in the United States were launched ten two-seater Gemini spaceships.
At the same time, the Apollo program was developed in the United States, which ended
with landing of American astronauts on the moon. There were eleven manned flights in total on
the Apollo program, there are three of them with an exit onto the orbit of the moon and six with a landing on the moon.
Only 12 American astronauts visited the moon.
In 1973 and 1974, Americans exploited Skylab space station. The station was visited by three long-term
expeditions to each three astronauts.
At the same time, was launched a program of the reusable manned spacecraft Space Shuttle. The first flight of the shuttle was
done in 1981. From 1981 to 2011, 130 shuttle flights were carried out. Two shuttles
Challenger and Colombia crashed, killing 14 astronauts.
The United States participates in the International Space Station project. After closing the program
of the Space Shuttle, American astronauts fly to the ISS in the Russian Soyuz.
A total of 340 US astronauts have been in space, among them - 47 women.
List of astronauts of USA.
Czechoslovakia has the only cosmonaut who flew into space according to the program
Intercosmos on the spacecraft Soyuz-28.
Poland has the only cosmonaut who flew into space according to the program
Intercosmos on the spacecraft Soyuz-30.
GDR has the only cosmonaut who flew into space according to the program
Intercosmos on the spacecraft Soyuz-31.
List of German astronauts.
The first Bulgarian cosmonaut Georgy Ivanov went into space on April 10, 1979 on
Soyuz-33. The spacecraft did not come out
to the calculated orbit. The planned docking with the Salyut-6 station did not take place.
In compensation for the unsuccessful flight of the first cosmonaut, Bulgaria received a second cosmonaut.
Alexander Alexandrov flew into space in 1988.
The flight of the second Bulgarian cosmonaut went quite well. Docked
with Mir station and the flight program is fully implemented.
List of Bulgarian cosmonauts.
Hungary has the only cosmonaut who flew into space according to the program
Intercosmos on the spacecraft Soyuz-36.
Vietnam has the only cosmonaut who flew into space according to the program
Intercosmos on the spacecraft Soyuz-37.
Cuba has the only cosmonaut who flew into space according to the program
Intercosmos on the spacecraft Soyuz-38.
Arnaldo Tamayo Mendez
Romania has the only cosmonaut who flew into space according to the program
Intercosmos on the spacecraft Soyuz-40.
The first German cosmonaut was Sigmund Jaehn from the GDR, who flew into space on the Soviet
spacecraft Soyuz in 1978. The first cosmonaut of West Germany became
Ulf Merbold who flew into space on the Space Shuttle
Columbia STS-9 in 1983. Later (in 1994)
Merbold also flew on the Russian spaceshif Soyuz TM-20.
Germany is actively involved in manned flights. German astronauts flew
as on the spaceships of the USSR/Russia and the United States.
Germany, through the European Space Agency,
participates in the project of the International Space Station. By now into space
flew eleven German astronauts. Ulf Merbold made three space flights.
German cosmonauts participated in German cosmonauts participated in thirteen space flights, seven of them on Soviet
(Russian) ships and six on American shuttles.
List of astronauts of Germany
Saudi Arabia has the only cosmonaut who flew into space on Space Shuttle
Mexico has the only cosmonaut who flew into space on Space Shuttle
Rodolfo Neri Vela
Afghanistan has the only cosmonaut who flew into space on the spacecraft Soyuz TM-6.
The Great Britain has two cosmonauts. The first was
Helen Sharman who did
flight aboard the Russian spacecraft Soyuz TM-12 . The second cosmonaut of the Great Britain was
Timothy Peak, who also flew on the Russian spacecraft
Soyuz TMA-19M and spent a half of year
in the crew of the ISS.
Austria has the only cosmonaut who flew into space on the spacecraft Soyuz TM-13.
Claude Nicollier is the only astronaut of the Switzerland,
which, however, flew four times into space on the American Space shuttles.
He made his first flight in 1992 on the Space Shuttle Atlantis STS-46.
Ukraine has the only astronaut who flew into space on the Space Shuttle
The single Spanish astronaut Pedro Duque twice
flew into space. First time on the Space Shuttle STS-95 Discovery,
and the second time on Soyuz TMA-3.
Mark Shuttleworth is the only astronaut and
at the same time a space tourist from South Africa who flew into space on Soyuz TM-34.
Marcos Pontes is the only astronaut from Brazil who flew
into space onSoyuz ТМА-8.
Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor is the only astronaut from Malaysia who flew
into space on Soyuz ТМА-11.
Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor
Andreas Mogensen is the only cosmonaut from
Denmark, who flew in space on Soyuz TMA-18M.