China is the third country that independently manages manned space flights. By 2018, China has implemented
six manned spaceflights. Eleven astronauts flew into space, among them two women.
One, Nie Haisheng
, flew twice and
one, Jing Haipeng
, three times.
Two cosmonauts took part in the spacewalk.
China is actively developing a three-stage manned space program. The first stage - to send an astronaut into space
and safely return it to the ground. This phase was carried out in 2003, when
made the first manned flight on the Shenzhou-5.
At the present time, the second phase of the manned space program is underway, the goal of which is to go into outer space
and docking in orbit, as well as the launch of a space laboratory that can be temporarily inhabited. In September 2016
China's space laboratory "Tiangong-2" was put into orbit. It is planned that this laboratory will be periodically
inhabited. Two cosmonauts can live in the laboratory of "Tiangong-2" for 30 days. To the laboratory can dock
manned and cargo spaceships.
The third stage is the launching into the orbit a permanently operating habitable space station. China plans to start building
space station. China's space station will consist of three parts, weighing more than 60 tons, and be able to
docking of two manned ships and one cargo ship. Six astronauts can stay at the station simultaneously.
The station must remain in orbit for ten years. Astronauts can stay in orbit for more than one year.
Facts of China's Space Manned Program:
List of Chinese astronauts.
- «Shenzhou-1» Launch: 22:30 19 ноября 1999. Landing: 19:41 Nov 20, 1999. The main purpose of the flight is the reliability test
launcher and verification of key technologies associated with the separation of the ship and its separation into modules,
test of heat protection, control and landing.
- «Shenzhou-2» Launch: 01:00 Jan 9, 2001. Landing: 11:22 Jan 16, 2001. «Shenzhou-2» was a first unmanned space ship
- «Shenzhou-3» Launch: 14:00 Mar 25, 2002. Landing: 08:51 Apr 1, 2002. The second unmmanned flight.
- «Shenzhou-4» Launch: 16:40 Dec 29, 2002. Landing: 11:16 Jan 5, 2003. The third unmanned flight.
- «Shenzhou-5» Launch: 01:00 Oct 15, 2003. Landing: 22:23 Oct 15, 2003.
The first manned flight. China becomes the third country to carry out a manned flight. The first Chinese cosmonaut
became Yang Liwei.
- «Shenzhou-6» Launch: 01:00 Oct 12, 2005. Landing: 20:32 Oct 16, 2005.
The second manned space flight of China. Crew: Fei Junlong and
- «Shenzhou-7» Launch: 13:10 Sep 25, 2008. Landing: 09:38 Sep 28, 2008.
The third manned space flight of China. Crew: Zhai Zhigang,
Liu Boming и Jing Haipeng.
Zhai Zhigang and Liu Boming implemented the first Chinese spacewalk.
- Tiangong-1 station Launch: 13:16 Sep 29, 2011.
- «Shenzhou-8» Launch: 21:58 Oct 31, 2011. Landing: 11:32 Nov 17, 2011. Unmanned flight. The first
docking with the Tiangong-1 station.
- «Shenzhou-9» Launch: 10:37 Jun 16, 2012. Landing: 02:02 ч Jun 29, 2012.
Crew: Jing Haipeng,
Liu Wang and Liu Yang.
Docking with the Tiangong-1 station. Liu Yang is the first female cosmonaut of China.
Launch: 9:38 Jun 11, 2013. Landing: 00:07 Jun 26, 2013. Crew:
Nie Haisheng, Zhang Xiaoguang
и Wang Yaping. Docking with the Tiangong-1 station.
Wang Yaping is the first female cosmonaut of China.
- «Shenzhou-11» Launch: 23:30 Oct 16, 2016. Landing: 05:59 Nov 18, 2016.
Crew: Jing Haipeng,
Chen Dong. Docking with the Tiangong-2 station.
Все пилотируемые полёты кораблей Shenzhou: